Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

As the biggest expenditure in the Farm Bill, SNAP is used by 46.5 million Americas (as of June 2014) of which 49% are children 18 and younger. It is estimated that only 75% of those eligible utilize the program. In addition to direct assistance, SNAP includes a few smaller programs, some of which are outlined here. The 2014 Farm Bill saw the program's funding being cut by $8.6 billion over the next 10 years, and was largely debated in Congress and the media.

Purpose: SNAP offers nutrition assistance to eligible, low-income individuals and families. Participants are able to redeem benefits for SNAP-eligible foods at SNAP-eligible retailers, which can include community-supported agriculture (CSAs) and farmers markets. To retain eligibility, most able-bodied adults must comply with work requirements. College and post-secondary students, lottery/gambling winners and those with felony drug convictions are disqualified from the program. The programs does have a 96.8% accuracy, with only 1% suspected to be fraudulent.
An "Employment & Training" sub-program allows for ten pilot programs designed to reduce dependency on SNAP and increase work effort.
The program is administered by the USDA's Food and Nutrition Service.
Funding: $90 million annually available through FY 2017, and $80 million in FY 2018.
History: SNAP is evolved from the food stamp program, having been created in the 2008 Farm Bill. Food stamps began in 1939, and became permanent with the Food Stamp Act of 1964. By 2004, EBT cards had been adopted nationwide. 
Original Sponsor: TK
2013 Sponsor: TK
For More Information, Visit These Sites:
The USDA's Food and Nutrition Service's Program Page
The USDA's FNS Page on Eligibility & Monthly Benefit Allotments
The USDA's FNS Program Page on Employment & Training Programs
Center on Budget & Policy Priorities
Food Research & Action Center
Snap to Health
 

Restaurant Meals Program

Purpose: Allows homeless, disabled, or elderly households to redeem SNAP benefits at restaurants that offer concessional prices. Offered on a state-by-state basis.
For More Information, Visit These Sites:
SNAP and the Restaurant Meals Program

Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program

Purpose: Provides grant funding for states to provide programs for SNAP (and other domestic food assistance program) participants as well as other low-income households. “[S]tate agencies may implement a nutrition education and obesity prevention program for eligible individuals that promotes healthy food choices consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans.”
History: Formerly the SNAP Nutrition Education aka "SNAP-Ed," the program was created by the Healthy, Hungry Kids Act of 2010.
For More Information, Visit These Sites:
The USDA's SNAP-Ed Connection
The USDA's SNAP Nutrition Education Program Page

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Disclaimer: This is an aggregated site, meaning most of the information found within is from another publicly available source. The majority of the program information can be found in the Congressional Research Service's "The Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79): Summary and Side-by-Side" report, as well as the program respective USDA page.